John the Evangelist: Revision and Reinterpretation in Early Christian Sources (Phd diss., VU Amsterdam, 2017).

Section 1 argues that early Christian sources identified John the Evangelist with Papias’s John the Elder.

Section 2 argues for an early Christian identification of John the Evangelist with John Mark.

The interested reader is encouraged to consult the two published books (“The Identity of John the Evangelist” and “The John also Called Mark“) which arose from the dissertation, as each contains significant revisions (especially “The John also Called Mark,” which is twice the size of section 2 of the dissertation, on which it was based).

Conference Presentations

The Confusion of John and Mark in Christian Sources Draws attention to two features found in ancient and medieval Christian sources: the placement of Mark in roles associated with the Beloved Disciple, and the attribution to both Mark and John of the same traditions.

The Origins of Episcopacy in Early Christianity Are the origins of the episcopal office to be found in a post-apostolic innovation in church government, or does it have its origins in New Testament times?

Graduate Papers

Dionysius on the Apocalypse: Breaking New Ground, or Muddying the Waters?

The Essenes Rediscovered in Light of Ancient Sources

Chapter Summaries

From The Identity of John the Evangelist: Revision and Reinterpretation in Early Christian Sources

1. Papias’s John the Elder Summary of Chapter 1, discussing evidence that Papias of Hierapolis did speak of a second, separate John from among the disciples of Jesus, named John the Elder, contrary to those who argue that Papias spoke of the same John twice.

2. The Martyrdom of the Apostle John This is a summary of Chapter 2, which examines evidence for two separate traditions of death associated with a figure named John: that of an early martyrdom, associated with John the Apostle, and that of a peaceful death in old age, associated with John the Evangelist.

3. The Evangelist, the Elder, and the Zebedean John in Early Christian Sources Chapter 3 of the book, of which this is a summary, challenges the common assertion that the earliest Christian sources identified John the Evangelist with the Zebedean John, arguing instead that the descriptions of the Evangelist in these sources often better correlate with Papias’s John the Elder.

4. John’s Claudian Exile in the Muratorian Canon and Epiphanius Why did Epiphanius and (probably) the Muratorian Canon place John’s exile to Patmos during the reign of Claudius (41-54)? Chapter 4 posits that the Claudian exile tradition arose as a result of conflation of the tradition of John the Apostle’s early martyrdom and that of John the Evangelist’s exile to Patmos.

5. Hippolytus, Gaius, and the Alogoi Hippolytus’s identification of the Apostle and Evangelist may have been made in the context of his defense of the Gospel and Revelation against Gaius and the Alogoi, a faction in the church at Rome that rejected these works and attributed them to a heretic named Cerinthus.

6. Eusebius and the Domitianic Exile Tradition How and why Eusebius went about constructing the narrative of John’s exile to Patmos during Domitian’s persecution of the Roman aristocracy.

7. Patristic Evidence for the Early Date of Revelation Summary of evidence that the early Christian sources contextualized John’s exile in the reign of Nero.

German version here

Portuguese version here

8. Forthcoming.

9. Forthcoming.

10. Forthcoming.

The John also Called Mark: Reception and Transformation in Christian Tradition


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