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The Debate between Hanegraaff and Hitchcock

I recently had cause to listen once again–the first time in years–to the debate between Hanegraaff and Hitchcock on the dating of Revelation. First off, it is clear that Hanegraaff was out of his depth when it came to the external evidence for the date of Revelation. One wonders what kind of edifying discussion it could have been had it been held with Kenneth Gentry instead, who could have presented a case for both the external and internal evidence for the early date (though I don’t accept his preterist interpretations).

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The “Ancient Copies” of Revelation

Kenneth Gentry and others have argued for the early date of Revelation from Irenaeus’ reference to the “ancient copies” of it in existence in his day. Is this correct?

One argument that Irenaeus dated Revelation early is that he referred to the “ancient copies” of the book of Revelation as those containing the number 666, rather than 616 (Haer. 5.30.1).1.

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The Martyrdom of John the Son of Zebedee

The ancient calendars of the church remember the martyrdom of the apostle John, the son of Zebedee, and his brother James on December 27.

In the calendars of the ancient church, John the son of Zebedee was remembered on the 27th December (or sometimes the 28th).

One of the earliest such calendars is an Armenian one, perhaps dating from the third century, which remembers “James and John, the Sons of Thunder” on the 28th December.

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The John/Mark Hypothesis: Implications for Paul’s Later Letters

The implications of the John/Mark hypothesis for the question of the authorship of the Deutero-Paulines.


In my book, The John also called Mark: Reception and Transformation in Christian Tradition (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2020), I argued for an early Christian identification of John Mark with the Beloved Disciple/John the Evangelist. 

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The Muratorian Canon on the Date of Revelation

The Muratorian Canon’s non-Domitianic exile tradition

source

The Muratorian Canon, which is usually dated to around 170 (before Irenaeus),* provides a list of canonical books that were accepted by the church at Rome at the time of writing.

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Jerome on the Origin of Bishops (Part 3): The Decree

Jerome’s universal decree: is there any historical evidence?

In part 1, I quoted a passage from Jerome in which he states that presbyters and bishops were the same, and that a time came when it was universally decreed in the church that one presbyter should preside over the others, in order to remove the seeds of schism.

What was this “universal decree” that he alludes to?

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Jerome on the Origin of Bishops (Part 2)

“A Bishop and a Presbyter are the Same”

As noted in Part 1, Jerome claimed that presbyters and bishops were the same office, and that a time came when it was universally decreed in the church that one presbyter should preside over the others, in order to remove the seeds of schism.

Jerome (347-420)
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Jerome on the Origin of Bishops (Part 1)

Did Jerome deny the apostolic origins of the monarchical episcopate?

Following up on my article discussing the origin of episcopacy in the early church, this series of posts will discuss the well-known quotation of Jerome which seems to suggest that bishops arose out of the presbytery, and were not a separate office in the line of succession to the apostles, as argued in the article.

Jerome (347-420)
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Why is John’s Gospel Different? Some Thoughts

Authorship as the key to the difference between John and the Synoptics

The Gospel of John presents a distinct picture of the life and ministry of Jesus. Whereas the Synoptics relate Jesus’ aphorisms delivered before the simple crowds in the rustic backcountry of Galilee, John’s Gospel attributes to Jesus lengthier theological discourses and elevated claims to God-like status (e.g. the “I am” statements).

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